Copyright © 1980 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Johnson, Keach. "Elementary and Secondary Education in Iowa, 1890-1900: a Time of Awakening." The Annals of Iowa 45 (1980), 171-195.
Available at: http://ir.uiowa.edu/annals-of-iowa/vol45/iss3/2