Copyright © 1980 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Garcia, George F. "Black Disaffection From the Republican Party During the Presidency of Herbert Hoover, 1928-1932." The Annals of Iowa 45 (1980), 462-477.
Available at: http://ir.uiowa.edu/annals-of-iowa/vol45/iss6/3