Copyright © 1991 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Ogle, Maureen. "Efficiency and System in Municipal Services: Fire Departments in Iowa, 1870-1890." The Annals of Iowa 50 (1991), 841-860.
Available at: http://ir.uiowa.edu/annals-of-iowa/vol50/iss8/2