Copyright © 1991 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Johnson, Keach. "Roots of Modernization: Educational Reform in Iowa at the Turn of the Century." The Annals of Iowa 50 (1991), 892-918.
Available at: http://ir.uiowa.edu/annals-of-iowa/vol50/iss8/4