Copyright © 1994 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Matthias, Ronald. "The Know Nothings in Iowa: Opportunity and Frustration in Antebellum Politics." The Annals of Iowa 53 (1994), 25-42.
Available at: https://ir.uiowa.edu/annals-of-iowa/vol53/iss1/4