Copyright © 2003 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Schwalm, Leslie A. "Emancipation Day Celebrations: the Commemoration of Slavery and Freedom in Iowa." The Annals of Iowa 62 (2003), 291-332.
Available at: http://ir.uiowa.edu/annals-of-iowa/vol62/iss3/3