Date of Degree
MS (Master of Science)
Dental Public Health
Steven M. Levy
Objective: To determine risk factors for cavitated caries incidence and extent of cavitated caries among adolescents.
Methods: Three hundred and three Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS) subjects met inclusion criteria for interval between dental examination and the responses from the IFS (ages 13.5 to 17.0) and the Block Kids Food Frequency (ages 13.0 to 17.0) questionnaires, respectively. The analyses focused on the outcome variables of net cavitated caries incidence and net cavitated caries increment counts, respectively. The independent IFS questionnaire variables related to demographics, fluorides, oral hygiene, beverage intakes, dental visits, sealants and previous caries incidence variables, respectively, whereas, Block's questionnaire variables related to intakes of solid foods and beverages, respectively. Two sets of analyses, logistic and negative binomial regression analyses, were conducted to assess the associations between risk factors and net cavitated caries incidence and increment counts from 13 to 17, respectively.
Results: In multivariable logistic regression analyses, significant (p<0.05) negative associations were found between age 13 to 17 net cavitated caries incidence and greater frequency of consumption of vegetables, greater brushing frequency and greater frequency of sugar-free beverage consumption. Additionally, significant (p<0.05) positive associations were found between age 13 to 17 net cavitated caries incidence and both net cavitated caries incidence from 9 to 13 and frequency of consumption of solid-foods in the combined category of presumed moderate cariogenicity. The significant interaction effect showed that the effect of the presence/ absence of sealants varied for girls vs. boys.
In multivariable negative binomial analyses assessing the association between net cavitated caries increment count from 13 to 17 and risk factors, significant (p<0.05) positive associations were found with greater intake of foods predominant in starch, presence of sealants, greater baseline age, cavitated caries increment count from 9 to 13, and greater frequency of consumption of foods predominant in added sugar, respectively. Significant (p<0.05) negative associations were found between net cavitated caries incidence and greater frequency of consumption of foods predominant in fiber and natural sugar and greater daily fluoride intake from water. However, daily fluoride intake from water was not statistically significant with the significant interaction effect included between baseline age and net cavitated caries increment count from 9 to 13 (dichotomized as Y/N).
Conclusion: Presence of sealants, frequency of consumption of vegetables and previous cavitated caries incidence from 9 to 13 were associated with outcomes of incidence and extent of cavitated caries observed among IFS adolescents. The differences in findings for risk factors for incidence and extent of cavitated caries are due in part to the nature of the outcome variables (count vs. dichotomous), emphasizing the need to consider both outcomes in future studies of adolescent caries.
Adolescent Caries, Dental Caries, Dietary, Incidence, Iowa Fluoride Study, Risk Factors
xv, 366 pages
Includes bibliographical references (pages 359-366).
Copyright 2014 Kalyani Raj Yaduwanshi