Date of Degree
MS (Master of Science)
Objectives: Tooth replacement therapy using endosseous implants has become an essential component of contemporary dental practice. While a plethora of factors determine clinical success, the bucco-lingual and apico-coronal dimensions of the peri-implant mucosa play an important role in both esthetics and the maintenance of peri-implant health. Studies, most of which treat mucogingival defects in the natural dentition, comparing acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and autologous subepithelial connective tissue grafts (sCTG) have shown similar clinical outcomes. The purpose of this non-inferiority trial is to determine the clinical efficacy of ADM in the augmentation of peri-implant mucosa thickness (PMT) as compared to an autologous sCTG in human adults.
Methods: Twenty healthy adults treatment planned for a single tooth implant restoration in need of simultaneous peri-implant mucosa augmentation at the time of implant placement were recruited on the basis of an eligibility criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to the control group (autologous sCTG), or the experimental group (ADM allograft). Clinical measurements of mucosal thickness at the site were made with a periodontal probe and an endodontic spreader at baseline and 16 weeks post-op. These measurements were made by a masked, calibrated examiner. Gingival health, oral hygiene, wound healing and patient reported outcomes were also obtained. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the mean mucosal thickness changes between the groups.
Results: The mean gain in PMT was approximately 1.5mm in the control group and 0.8mm in the experimental group. When measured at 1, 3 and 5mm apical from the CEJ, only the 3mm site exhibited a difference between the groups that approached statistical significance (control: 2.08 ± 0.80mm, test: 0.83 ± 1.37mm, Mann Whitney U = 10.00, p=0.05). Changes in keratinized mucosa width, healing index and patient reported outcomes were generally similar between the two groups.
Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, both autologous sCTG and ADM appear to be adequate materials to augment PMT without sacrificing other relevant clinical parameters and/or patient related outcomes.
Acellular Dermal Matrix, Dental Implant, Peri-implant Mucosa Thickness, Sub-epithelial Connective Tissue
Copyright 2016 Christopher G Hutton