Document Type

Dissertation

Date of Degree

Spring 2012

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Immunology

First Advisor

Paul B. Rothman

Abstract

Tim-1 (T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 1) is a transmembrane protein expressed by many cell types, including activated T cells and B cells. Antibodies to Tim-1 have been shown to decrease severity of airway hyperreactivity and Th2 cytokine production in mice. Current literature suggests Tim-1 functions as a co-stimulatory molecule. We hypothesize that Tim-1 signals in lymphocytes, and that Tim-1 signaling modulates allergic airway disease. Chapter one provides a brief overview of current literature exploring identification of the Tim family of receptors, genetic associations between TIM-1 polymorphisms and human diseases, Tim-1 expression, Tim-1 ligands, studies of antibodies to Tim-1 in various mouse models of human disease, and signaling events downstream of Tim-1 engagement. Chapter two provides detailed experimental methodology. Chapter three details the characterization of Tim-1 deficient mice. Tim-1 deficient mice do not exhibit defects in lymphocyte or myeloid cell development, as determined by numbers of cells present in bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. C57BL/6 Tim-1 deficient female mice appear to develop an increased number of lymph node cells and also develop anti-double stranded DNA antibodies. Chapter four explores the impact of Tim-1 deficiency in a murine allergic airway disease model, which demonstrated that Tim-1 deficient mice developed increased lung inflammation and increased antigen-specific Th2 cytokine production that was evident in mice backcrossed to both BALB/c and C57BL/6 backgrounds. These phenotypes were not evident using purified naïve CD4+ T cells polarized in vitro. As Tim-1 expression is not restricted to CD4+ T cells, adoptive transfer experiments were performed to determine whether the phenotype observed was due to the deficiency of Tim-1 on CD4+ T cells, non-CD4+ T cells, or Tim-1 deficiency on both CD4+ T cells and non-CD4+ T cells. Chapter five explores the impact of Tim-1 deficiency in a chronic Leishmania major intradermal infection model. Tim-1 deficient mice crossed to both BALB/c and C57BL/6 backrounds demonstrated similar parasite burden over the course of time, but in vitro restimulation of lymph node cells revealed a striking increase in cytokine production that extended to Th1, Th2, and Th17 lineages. Tim-1 signaling in murine B cell lines is explored in Chapter six. A Tim-1 monoclonal antibody conjugated to beads induces phosphorylation of Tim-1 and recruitment of the Src family kinase Fyn. This phosphorylation of Tim-1 is reduced in Fyn-deficient B cell lines. Chapter seven discusses the significance of these findings, relates current literature to these results, and provides some avenues for further exploration of Tim-1 function and signaling.

Keywords

asthma, B cell, CD4+ T cell, signaling, Th2 cell, Tim-1

Pages

2, xiv, 154 pages

Bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 133-154).

Copyright

Copyright 2012 Miranda Lynn Curtiss

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