Date of Degree
PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)
Jasbir S. Arora
This study develops theorems which generalize or improve the existing predictive dynamics method and implements them to simulate several motion tasks of a human model. Specifically, the problem of determination of contact forces (non-adhesive) between the environment and the digital human model is addressed. Determination of accurate contact forces is used in the calculation of joint torques and is important to account for human strength limitations in simulation of various tasks. It is shown that calculation of the contact forces based on the distance of the contact areas from the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) leads to unrealistic values for some of the forces. This is the approach that has been used in the past. In this work, necessary and sufficient constraints for modeling the non-adhesiveness of a contact area are presented through the definition of NCM (Normal Contact Moment) concepts. NCM point, constraints and stability margins are the new theoretical concepts introduced. When there is only one contact area between the body and the environment, the ZMP and the NCM point coincide. In this case, the contact forces and moments are deterministic. When there are more than one contact areas, the contact forces and moments are indeterminate. In this case, an optimization problem is defined based on the NCM constraints where contact forces and moments are treated as the unknown design variables. Here, kinematics of the motion is assumed to be known. It is shown that this approach leads to more realistic values for the contact forces and moments for a human motion task as opposed to the ZMP based approach. The proposed approach appears to be quite promising and needs to be fully integrated into the predictive dynamics approach of human motion simulation. Some other insights are obtained for the predictive dynamics approach of human motion simulation. For example, it is mathematically proved and also validated that there is a need for an individual constraint to ensure that the normal component of the resultant global forces remains compressive for non-adhesive contacts between the body and the environment. Also, the ZMP constraints and stability margins are applicable for the problems where all the contacts between the environment and the body are in one plane; however, the NCM constraints and stability margins are applicable for all types of arbitrary contacts between the body and the environment. The ZMP and NCM methods are used to model the motion of a human (soldier) performing several military tasks: Aiming, Kneeling, Going Prone and Aiming in Prone Position. New collision avoidance theorems are also presented and used in these simulations.
Copyright 2012 Mahdiar Hariri
Hariri, Mahdiar. "A study of optimization-based predictive dynamics method for digital human modeling." dissertation, University of Iowa, 2012.