Document Type

Dissertation

Date of Degree

2013

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Microbiology

First Advisor

Paul B. McCray

Abstract

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of which lung disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. One attractive strategy for the treatment of CF lung disease is to directly deliver CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene to airway epithelia. Although promising results have been reported, barriers present in the lung make successful gene transfer to the respiratory tract difficult. In order to improve gene transfer strategies in the intrapulmonary airways, we need to identify the bottlenecks of transduction for the vector system. A previous study reported that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-mediated gene transfer was more efficient in the nasal airways in mice than the intrapulmonary airways (Sinn, P.L. et al. 2008, J. Viol). Our first goal was to identify barriers to lentiviral gene transfer in the murine airways. We demonstrate that host immune response is not the major barrier preventing efficient FIV-mediated transduction in the intrapulmonary airways. We show that the FIV vector transduces murine primary nasal epithelial cell cultures with greater efficiency than murine primary tracheal epithelial cell cultures. In addition, GP64 pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transduces better in nasal epithelia compared to intrapulmonary airways in mice. On the other hand, we observed that VSVG glycoprotein-pseudotyped VSV transduces the intrapulmonary airway as well as nasal epithelia in mice with similar efficiency. Our results suggest that differentially expressed cellular factor(s) specific for GP64 or FIV vector may be the major barrier(s) for FIV vector-mediated gene transfer in the murine intrapulmonary airways.

The recent development of CF porcine models prompted us to investigate possible barriers for lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer in porcine cells. Our preliminary results showed that HIV transduction was restricted in porcine but not human lung-derived cell lines. Porcine TRIM5 has sequences similar to restrictive bovine TRIM5 orthologs. Therefore, our second goal was to investigate the possible restriction of lentiviral vectors by porcine TRIM5. We demonstrate that transient overexpression or knockdown of endogenously expressed porcine TRIM5 does not affect HIV or FIV transduction.

Lastly, we characterized a mucin domain-deleted EBOV (EBOVΔO) glycoprotein mutant with increased transduction. This EBOVΔO 5-mer mutant was generated based on mutants with an increased transduction as identified by alanine scanning mutagenesis (Brindlay, M.A. et al. 2007. J. Viol). We show that VSV pseudotyped with the 5-mer mutant increased transduction both in vitro and in mice when compared to the wild-type EBOVΔO. Structural analysis demonstrated that 5 mutations were located proximal to the GP1-GP2 interface. Enhanced transduction likely results from a lower energy metastable state of the glycoprotein. FIV pseudotyped with 5-mer also shows increased transduction in multiple cell lines. Identification of barriers in intrapulmonary airways and improvements of vector systems will help the advancement of gene therapy for CF.

Keywords

Ebola virus, FIV, Gene therapy, lentiviral vector, TRIM5alpha

Pages

ix, 126 pages

Bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 106-126).

Copyright

Copyright 2013 Mayumi Oakland

Included in

Microbiology Commons

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