Document Type

Thesis

Date of Degree

Spring 2014

Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)

Degree In

Mechanical Engineering

First Advisor

Hongtao Ding

Abstract

High energy pulse laser peening (HEPLP) is a manufacturing process, in which a strong shock wave is produced and induces high pressures on the surface of the target material. Generally, this process is used to improve material properties such as the hardness and fatigue life. First a 2D multi-physics model for the process was investigated, which simulates the pressure induced on the surface of the target material. The model can be coupled with commercial finite element software, such as ABAQUS, to more accurately simulate the HEPLP process to find stresses and deformations on the surface. Next two novel applications using the HEPLP process were investigated.

The first, laser shock bending is a sheet metal micro-forming process using HEPLP to accurately bend, shape, precision align, or repair micro-components with bending angles less than 10°. Negative bending angle (away from laser beam) can be achieved with the high-energy pulsed laser, in addition to the conventional positive laser bending mechanism. In this thesis, various experimental and numerical studies on aluminum sheets were conducted to investigate the different deformation mechanisms, positive and negative. The experiments were conducted with the sheet thickness varying from 0.25 to 1.75 mm and laser pulse energy of 0.2 to 0.5 J. A critical thickness threshold of 0.7-0.88 mm was found that the transition of positive negative bending mechanism occurs. A statistic regression analysis was also developed to determine the bending angle as a function of laser process parameters for positive bending cases.

The second application studied used HEPLP to imprint complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns dental implant material of cpTi. Pure titanium (commercial pure cpTi) is an ideal dental implant material, without the leeching of toxic alloy elements. Evidence has shown that unsmooth implant surface topologies may contribute to the osteoblast differentiation in human mesenchymal pre-osteoblastic cells, which is helpful to avoid long-term peri-abutment inflammation issues for the dental implant therapy with transcutaneous devices. Studies have been conducted on the grit blasted, acid etched, or uni-directional grooved Ti surface, however, for these existing approaches the surface quality is difficult to control or may even damage the implant. The strong shock wave generated by HEPLP is used to press a stainless steel grid, used as a stamp, on Ti foils to imprint a 2D pattern. In this study, the multiple grid patterns and grid sizes were applied to test for cell-attachment improvements. Then, the cell culture tests were conducted with the patterned surface to investigate the contribution of these 2D patterns, with the control tests of the other existing implant surface topography forming approaches. The micro-patterns proved successful in increasing the cell-attachment, increasing the number of cells attaching to the material and also contributing to the cell-growth within the grooved areas.

Keywords

biomedical implants, laser peening, micro-bending, nanosecond-pulsed laser, patterning, sheet metal

Pages

x, 69 pages

Bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 65-69).

Copyright

Copyright 2014 Chelsey Nicole Pence

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