Date of Degree
PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)
Psychological and Quantitative Foundations
William M. Liu
Hundreds of research articles have been published about variables related to bystander helping behavior. Although significant gender differences have been found in bystander intervention research, the results have been incongruent with little explanation about the relationship between gender and bystander interventions. This study assessed the relationship between conformity to masculine role norms and bystander intervention behavior.
In this study, 200 college students completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46) to determine the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and the level of bystander intervention selected on the Bystander Intervention Measure (BIM). It was hypothesized that a significant main effect would exist between conformity to masculine norms and the types of bystander interventions selected. Participants also completed surveys on bystander self-efficacy, bystander intervention decision making, and prosocial tendencies (Prosocial Tendencies Measure).
Four hypotheses were developed for this study. It was hypothesized that there would be a statistically significant difference in scores on the five CMNI-46 subscales of winning, emotional control, risk-taking, violence, and self-reliance and the degree of involvement and immediacy of bystander interventions the four subscales of the Bystander Intervention Measure (BIM); that the five CMNI-46 subscales will still account for more variance regarding the degree of involvement and immediacy of bystander interventions even after controlling for prosocial tendencies from the PTM subscales; that there would be a statistically significant difference in scores on the five CMNI-46 subscales and the six PTM subscales, and that the five CMNI-46 subscales would predict bystander self-efficacy and decision making scores.
Copyright 2013 Jerrod Anthony Koon
Koon, Jerrod Anthony. "Masculinity and bystander helping behavior: a study of the relationship between conformity to masculine norms and bystander interventions." PhD diss., University of Iowa, 2013.