Date of Degree
Access restricted until 07/13/2019
PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Hank Heng Qi
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in American men. Although initial androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) confers a five year survival rate of 99%, the relapse of metastatic and drug resistant PCa (CRPC- Castration-Resistant PCa) continues to account for most deaths. How certain PCa cells develop into CRPC is the key question in the field. In addressing it, attention has focused on epigenetic factors that contribute to CRPC development. Herein we investigated the role and regulation of histone demethylase PHF8 during PCa neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) and progression into CRPC. We utilized bioinformatic analyses and biochemical approaches in PCa/CRPC cell line and mouse models to unravel the following results:
First, we discovered that PHF8 post-transcriptionally clusters with cell cycle genes during NED and into CRPC via an AR/MYC/miR-22 regulatory axis. We showed that this axis is dysregulated in CRPC cells to allow enhanced cell proliferation and resistance to the clinical AR antagonist drug Xtandi® (enzalutamide). Second, we revealed that PHF8 is necessary for hypoxia induced NED by demethylating repressive H3K9me2 and H3K27me2, above maintaining active H3K4me3 on select NED genes. Importantly, we unveiled that PHF8 sustains HIF1α expression in CRPC cells via a regulatory role associated with full length AR. Third, we recapitulated the role of PHF8 in vivo by excising its floxed allele in the prostate of TRAMP mice -Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate. We observed that KO of Phf8 lowered tumor burden in part by sustaining Ezh2 expression during NED transition into CRPC.
In conclusion, our data implicates PHF8 in multiple oncogenic roles and regulations during PCa NED into CRPC. Our results lay a foundation for understanding the dynamics of histone modifying enzymes during PCa progression and hint at designing small molecule inhibitors against PHF8 as a novel CRPC therapeutic target.
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa), EZH2, HIF1, miR-22, Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED), PHF8
xx, 194 pages
Includes bibliographical references (pages 164-194).
Copyright © 2017 Peterson Kariuki Maina
Available for download on Saturday, July 13, 2019