Document Type


Date of Degree

Spring 2015

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Teaching and Learning

First Advisor

Pamela M. Wesely


This mixed methods study investigates how Japanese non-native English speaking teachers’ (NNESTs) efficacy and identity are developed and differentiated from those of native English speaking teachers (NESTs). To explore NNESTs’ efficacy, this study focuses on the contributing factors, such as student engagement, classroom management, instructional strategies, self-perceived English proficiency, their teaching and teacher education backgrounds, culture related to teaching, and so on. For the portion of teacher identity, this study analyzes four perspectives: their role identity, professional identity, teacher education and professional development, English proficiency. After the data were collected from Japanese NNESTs, they were compared and contrasted with their NESTs’ counterparts. The primary goal of this study is to identify the characteristics of Japanese NNESTs’ efficacy and identity and investigate how their individual, educational, cultural, and other social factors influence their efficacy and identity development.

Forty six (46) Japanese NNESTs and one hundred and two (102) NESTs who were teaching in the junior high, high school, and college levels in Japan participated in a survey. Five Japanese NNESTs and six NESTs from the three types of grade levels were interviewed. Data analysis procedures comprised a statistical analysis of the survey data and a theme analysis of the interview data, and both data sets were integrated to discover the mixed method findings.

There were several major findings from this research. First, there was a positive correlation between Japanese NNESTs’ efficacy, particularly efficacy for instructional strategies, and self-perceived English proficiency. Therefore, higher English proficiency can be a predictor of a higher level of overall teacher efficacy and efficacy for instructional strategies. Second, although Japanese NNESTs’ efficacy for student engagement was lower than efficacy for classroom management and instructional strategies, they demonstrated various strategies for increasing their students’ motivation. Third, their Japanese use in instruction influenced their teacher identity, and being a language model and a behavioral role model was reflected on their Japanese NNESTs’ identity. Finally, college NESTs showed significantly higher teacher efficacy compared to different groups. Both Japanese NNESTs and NESTs’ efficacy and identity were formed by their previous teaching experiences, various roles as teachers, perceptions of Japanese educational system, culture, and students. The conclusion includes suggestions and implications for administrators, teacher educators, and Japanese NNESTs.


Japanese English teachers, Non-native speaking teachers, Teacher education


xvii, 271 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 241-254).


Copyright © 2015 Hiromi Takayama