Date of Degree
PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)
Henry L. Paulson
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are progressive fatal neurodegenerative movement disorders. Although many cellular processes are perturbed in polyQ disease, recent studies highlight the importance of protein misfolding as a central event in polyQ toxicity. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease, is a particularly interesting polyQ disease because of the special qualities of the disease protein ataxin-3, which normally participates in cellular protein quality control. Here I use multiple mouse models of disease to explore toxic protein species and the role of protein homeostasis in SCA3 pathogenesis.
In Chapter 1, I review the key features of polyQ disease, and outline the background and rationale behind our strategy for identifying toxic protein species in SCA3.
In Chapter 2, I examine the role of the protein quality control ubiquitin ligase, CHIP (C-terminus of Hsp70 interacting protein), in regulating the toxicity of expanded ataxin-3 in vivo. Genetic reduction or removal of CHIP increases formation of detergent-resistant ataxin-3 microaggregates specifically in the brain. Concomitant with this, reduction or removal of CHIP exacerbates the phenotype of SCA3 mice, revealing a correlation between high levels of microaggregates and phenotypic severity. Additional cell-based studies confirm that CHIP may not directly mediate ataxin-3 degradation, suggesting that CHIP reduces expanded ataxin-3 toxicity in the brain primarily by enhancing ataxin-3 solubility.
In Chapter 3, I use various biochemical techniques to reveal the presence of brain-specific ataxin-3 microaggregates in two genetically distinct mouse models of SCA3. Selective neuropathological evaluation of SCA3 mice reveals that major neuronal loss and reactive glial proliferation are not shared features of phenotypically-manifesting SCA3 mice. Additional studies fail to provide evidence for loss-of-function of endogenous ataxin-3 in SCA3 mice. Our results suggest that neuronal dysfunction in SCA3 is mediated through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism by ataxin-3 microaggregates in the CNS.
In Chapter 4, I discuss important areas for future research in polyQ disease. I describe studies that would help elucidate the structural nature of toxic soluble microaggregates, and their effects on other cellular proteins. I also consider how the results described in this thesis inform potential treatment strategies.
Copyright 2010 Aislinn Joanmarie Williams