Document Type

Thesis

Date of Degree

Fall 2010

Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)

Degree In

Occupational and Environmental Health

First Advisor

T. Renée Anthony

Abstract

In previous studies truncated models were found to underestimate the air's upward velocity when compared to wind tunnel velocity studies, which may affect particle aspiration estimates. This work compared aspiration efficiencies using three torso geometries: 1) a simplified truncated cylinder; 2) a non-truncated cylinder; and 3) an anthropometrically realistic humanoid body. The primary aim of this work was to (1) quantify the errors introduced by using a simplified geometry and (2) determine the required level of detail to adequately represent a human form in CFD studies of aspiration efficiency. Fluid simulations used the standard k-epsilon turbulence models, with freestream velocities at 0.2 and 0.4 m s-1 and breathing velocities at 1.81 and 12.11 m s-1 to represent at-rest and heavy breathing rates, respectively. Laminar particle trajectory simulations were used to determine the upstream area where particles would be inhaled. These areas were used to compute aspiration efficiencies for facing the wind. Significant differences were found in vertical velocity and location of the critical area between the three models. However, differences in aspiration efficiencies between the three forms was less than 6% over all particle sizes, indicating that there is little difference in aspiration efficiency between torso models.

Keywords

Aspiration efficiency, computational fluid dynamics, industrial hygiene

Pages

vii, 95 pages

Bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 93-95).

Copyright

Copyright 2010 Kimberly R. Anderson

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