Three-dimensional numerical study of flows in open-channel junctions

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Hydraulic Engineering


An open-channel junction flow is encountered in many hydraulic structures ranging from wastewater treatment facilities to fish passage conveyance structures. An extensive number of experimental studies have been conducted but a comprehensive three-dimensional numerical study of junction flow characteristics has not been performed and reported. In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed to investigate the open-channel junction flow. The main objective is to present the validation of a three-dimensional numerical model with high-quality experimental data and compare additional simulations with classical one-dimensional water surface calculations. The three-dimensional model is first validated using the experimental data of a 90 junction flow under two flow conditions. Good agreement is obtained between the model simulation and the experimental measurements. The model is then applied to investigate the effect of the junction angle on the flow characteristics and a discussion of the results is presented.


Sustainability, Open channel flow, Computer simulation, Hydraulic structures, Mathematical models, Wastewater treatment, Water

Published Article/Book Citation

Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 128:3 (2002) pp.268-280.

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