Implementing Best Evidence in Smoking Cessation Treatment for Hospitalized Veterans: Results from the VA-BEST Trial

David A. Katz, University of Iowa
John E. Holman
Skyler Johnson
Stephen L. Hillis, University of Iowa
Susan L. Adams
Steven S S. Fu
Kathleen M. Grant
Lynne M. Buchanan
Allan Prochazka
Catherine T. Battaglia
Marita G. Titler
Anne M. Joseph
Mark W. Vander Weg, University of Iowa

Abstract

Background: Although the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has promoted adherence to smoking cessation guidelines since 1997, hospitalized smokers do not consistently receive assistance in quitting. Methods: In a pre-post guideline implementation trial on the inpatient medicine units of four VA hospitals, the effectiveness of a multimodal intervention (enhanced academic detailing, modification of the nursing admission template, patient education materials and quitline referral, practice facilitation and staff feedback) changing practice behavior was evaluated. Peridischarge interviews were conducted with 824 patients to assess receipt of nurses’ and physicians’ delivery of the 5A’s (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in hospitalized smokers. Results: Subjects were significantly more likely to have received each of the 5A’s from a nurse during the postimplementation period (except for “advise to quit”). More patients ere assisted in quitting (75% versus 56%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 3.1) and had follow-up arranged (23% versus 18%, adjusted OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.2) by a nurse during the postimplementation period. However, unadjusted results showed no improvement in seven-day point prevalence abstinence at six-month follow-up (13.5% versus 13.9%). Nurses’ self-efficacy in cessation counseling, as measured in a survey of 166 unit nurses, improved following guideline implementation. DiscBackground: Although the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has promoted adherence to smoking cessation guidelines since 1997, hospitalized smokers do not consistently receive assistance in quitting. Methods: In a pre-post guideline implementation trial on the inpatient medicine units of four VA hospitals, the effectiveness of a multimodal intervention (enhanced academic detailing, modification of the nursing admission template, patient education materials and quitline referral, practice facilitation and staff feedback) changing practice behavior was evaluated. Peridischarge interviews were conducted with 824 patients to assess receipt of nurses’ and physicians’ delivery of the 5A’s (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in hospitalized smokers. Results: Subjects were significantly more likely to have received each of the 5A’s from a nurse during the postimplementation period (except for “advise to quit”). More patients were assisted in quitting (75% versus 56%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 3.1) and had follow-up arranged (23% versus 18%, adjusted OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.2) by a nurse during the postimplementation period. However, unadjusted results showed no improvement in seven-day point prevalence abstinence at six-month follow-up (13.5% versus 13.9%). Nurses’ self-efficacy in cessation counseling, as measured in a survey of 166 unit nurses, improved following guideline implementation. Discussion: A multifaceted intervention including enhanced academic detailing is an effective strategy for improving the delivery of smoking cessation services in medical inpatients. To promote long-term cessation, more intensive interventions are needed to ensure that motivated smokers receive guideline-recommended treatment (including pharmacotherapy and referral to outpatient cessation counseling).ussion: A multifaceted intervention including enhanced academic detailing is an effective strategy for improving the delivery of smoking cessation services in medical inpatients. To promote long-term cessation, more intensive interventions are needed to ensure that motivated smokers receive guideline-recommended treatment (including pharmacotherapy and referral to outpatient cessation counseling).

 

URL

http://ir.uiowa.edu/internalmedicine_pubs/2