Evaluating instruments for a study on children's responses to a painful procedure when parents are distraction coaches

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

J Pediatr Nurs

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of pediatric nursing

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version



Existing research identifies numerous variables that may influence children's distress responses during medical procedures. In preparation for a large multisite study to test relationships among these numerous variables and parent distraction coaching, a pilot study of instruments was performed that measured the more complex constructs, namely anxiety, coping, temperament, attention, and parenting style. This article describes the benefits, process, and results of evaluating research instruments before initiating a large study on children's distress during ;medical procedures. A convenience sample of 68 children (4-12 years old) and their parents participated in this study. Children completed state and trait anxiety measures and a coping style scale. Parents completed questionnaires about their child's temperament, attention behavior, anxiety, and coping during a recent medical procedure, and about their own anxiety and parenting style. Coefficients of reliability of the measures were examined and understandability of the instruments was assessed. A forward regression showed that nurturing parenting style, parent's state anxiety, and child's state anxiety accounted for 32% of the variance in child distress during a recent medical procedure.


Attention, Child, Child Psychology, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Male, Midwestern United States, Models, Psychological, Pain/prevention & control/psychology, Parenting/psychology, Pilot Projects, Psychological Tests, Psychometrics, Questionnaires, Regression Analysis, Reproducibility of Results, Stress, Psychological/prevention & control/psychology, Temperament

Published Article/Book Citation

Journal of pediatric nursing, 21:2 (2006) pp.99-107. DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2005.06.008.

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