The effect of speed-of-processing training on depressive symptoms in ACTIVE

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


Journal, Book or Conference Title

The journals of gerontology.Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences

NLM Title Abbreviation

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci

PubMed ID



doi: 10.1093/gerona/gln044


OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of three cognitive training interventions on depressive symptoms at 1 and 5 years. METHODS: Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly is a multisite randomized controlled trial (age >or= 65 years), with four groups (memory, reasoning, speed-of-processing, and no-contact control). Complete data were available for 2,014 (72%) and 1,516 (54%) of 2,802 participants at 1 and 5 years. Separate propensity score models adjusted for potential attrition bias. Clinically important increases in depressive symptoms were defined as: (a) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D)-12 score increases >or=0.5 SD and (b) CES-D-12 score increases >or=1.0 SD. Multivariable logistic regression was used. RESULTS: The speed-of-processing group (vs the no-contact control group) was 30% less likely to experience clinically important increases in depressive symptoms at 1-year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.700, p = .012) and 5-year (AOR = 0.698, p = .023) posttraining for the >or=0.5 SD threshold. Similar results (AOR = .669 with p = .039 at 1 year; AOR = 0.651 with p = .059 at 5 years) were obtained for the >or=1.0 SD threshold. No differences were observed among the control, memory, or reasoning groups at either time period or at either threshold. CONCLUSION: The speed-of-processing intervention reduced the risk of clinically important increases in depressive symptoms at 1- and 5-years postbaseline.


Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Aging/physiology, Cognitive Therapy/methods, Depression/diagnosis/therapy, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Geriatric Assessment, Humans, Intervention Studies, Logistic Models, Male, Memory, Mental Processes/physiology, Multivariate Analysis, Problem Solving, Reaction Time, Reference Values, Risk Factors, Severity of Illness Index, Treatment Outcome

Published Article/Book Citation

The definitive version was published in The journals of gerontology.Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, 64:4 (2009) pp.468-472. DOI:doi: 10.1093/gerona/gln044.

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