Lack of maternal metabolic, endocrine, and environmental influences in the etiology of cleft lip with or without cleft palate

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Cleft Palate J

Journal/Book/Conference Title

The Cleft palate journal

PubMed ID



We studied metabolic, endocrine, and environmental factors in 59 women who had delivered a child with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL +/- CP) and compared these values with those of 56 mothers of unaffected children. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to race, age, weight, height, education, parity, menstrual history, medical illnesses, or the use of contraceptives, tobacco, alcohol, or caffeine. All patients had a normal XX karyotype confirmed by the fluorescent banding technique. The two groups demonstrated no significant difference in test results of serum chemistries, glucose tolerance, serum or erythrocyte folate, vitamin A, carotene, corticoids, prolactin T4, free T4, urine 17-ketosteroids, 17-hydroxysteroids, total estrogens, or pregnanediol. Urinalyses revealed no group differences in the presence of barbiturates, amphetamines, salicylates, or benzodiazepines. The percentage of immunologic studies reflecting susceptibility to toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalic inclusion disease, and herpes was not different between the two groups. The only statistically significant metabolic differences between the two groups were serum alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, creatinine clearance, and creatinine clearance/m2. Phenytoin pharmacokinetics and urinary metabolic patterns were compared in a subgroup of ten mothers of affected children and ten mothers from the control group. No significant differences were observed. However, a brief course of phenytoin treatment induced a greater inhibition of the folate tolerance test in controls than in mothers of children with clefts.


Adult, Cleft Lip/etiology, Cleft Palate/etiology, Drug Interactions, Endocrine Glands/physiology, Erythrocytes/metabolism, Female, Folic Acid/metabolism, Humans, Kinetics, Maternal-Fetal Exchange, Phenytoin/metabolism/pharmacology, Pregnancy, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects, Retrospective Studies, Risk

Published Article/Book Citation

The Cleft palate journal, 22:1 (1985) pp.20-28.

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