Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

J Abnorm Psychol

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Abnormal Psychology

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version



Although sleep complaints are common in depression and anxiety, there is little agreement as to how they should be organized and assessed. It is also unclear whether sleep complaints show specificity with certain disorders or if they are nonspecific symptoms. We examined the structure of sleep complaints and the relations of these complaints to depression and anxiety in three samples: college students, older adults, and psychiatric patients. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that sleep complaints consistently defined two distinct dimensions: Insomnia and Lassitude. The Insomnia factor included indicators of early, middle, and late insomnia, as well as poor sleep quality. The Lassitude factor included measures of hypersomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness. Both factors were significantly related to symptoms and diagnoses of depression and anxiety. However, Lassitude was more strongly related to symptoms of depression and anxiety than was Insomnia. In addition, Lassitude showed specificity to measures and diagnoses of depression compared to anxiety disorders. This specificity can be explained by Lassitude’s relation with negative and positive emotionality, both of which are components of depression.


Major Depression, Anxiety Disorders, Sleep, Factor Analysis


This research was supported in part by National Institute of Mental Health Grant R01-MH068472 to David Watson.

Published Article/Book Citation

The definitive version was published in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118:1 (2009) pp. 183-194. DOI: 10.1037/a0013945


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