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Peer Reviewed

1

Abstract

Argues that "the social crisis produced by urbanization shaped Whitman's poetry and pragmatist thought in similar ways," and examines Whitman's struggles with skepticism and relativism in light of his straddling of rural and urban experience, finding that Whitman's "untamed flow of sympathy" in his urban poems of 1855 and 1856 gives way to an increasing "urbane doubt" and "withdrawal from the city" in his 1860 "Calamus" poems.

Rights

Copyright © 2003 Frances Dickey and M. Jimmie Killingsworth

DOI

10.13008/2153-3695.1717

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