Copyright © 1980 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Lufkin, Jack. "The Founding and Early Years of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in Des Moines, 1915-1930." The Annals of Iowa 45 (1980), 439-461.
Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.17077/0003-4827.8733