Copyright © 1992 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Swensen, Rolf. "Ernst Hofer: a German Republican Journalist in Iowa, 1855-1890." The Annals of Iowa 51 (1992), 565-602.
Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.17077/0003-4827.9691