Copyright © 2010 State Historical Society of Iowa. This article is posted here for personal use, not for redistribution.
Fehn, Bruce; and Jefferson, Robert. "North Side Revolutionaries in the Civil Rights Struggle: The African American Community in Des Moines and the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, 1948–1970." The Annals of Iowa 69 (2010), 51-81.
Available at: https://ir.uiowa.edu/annals-of-iowa/vol69/iss1/4