Effect of the Electron Donor Structure on the Shelf-Lifetime of Visible-Light Activated Three-Component Initiator Systems

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Applied Polymer Science

DOI of Published Version


Start Page


End Page



In this study, we investigated the effect of electron donor structures on the shelf life of three-component initiator systems which also included methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer and Biphenyl iodonium salt (DPI) as an electron acceptor. For this research, N-phenylglycine (NPG), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), N,N-diisopropyl-3-pentylamine (DIPA), and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) were used as electron donors, with different of proton transfer efficiencies and radical/cation persistence. To aid characterization of the shelf-life or dark storage stability of three-component initiator systems, the relative polymerization kinetic profile of each freshly prepared initiator system was first obtained using photo-DSC. The standardized photopolymerization reactions were repeated after various dark storage intervals. Thermal stability of each initiator system was compared by applying a ramped temperature program to monomer samples in the DSC in the dark. To analyze the kinetic changes as a function of storage time more quantitatively, we suggested an equation and characterized the shelf-lifetime constant (k) of three-component initiator systems. From the experiments and analysis, we conclude that the order of shelf-life is consistent with the of radical cation (DH center dot(+)) persistence; DABCO > DIPA > MDEA > NPG, and inversely related to the proton transfer efficiency of the electron donor; NPG > MDEA > DIPA > DABCO. The effects of electron donor structures on thermal stability were consistent with the results of kinetic shelf-life experiments. This investigation provides an effective means to characterize as well as predict shelf lifetimes of initiator systems. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114:1535-1542, 2009

Published Article/Book Citation

Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 114:3 (2009) pp.1535-1542.

This document is currently not available here.