DOI

10.17077/drivingassessment.1698

Location

Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA

Date

26-6-2019

Session

Session 5 – Methods and Data Analysis

Abstract

This paper reports the results of a driving simulator study, which analyzed differences in drivers’ raw gaze transition patterns during different stages of a lane-change maneuver, measured during manual, partially and conditionally automated driving. To understand whether the different levels of automation affected behaviour, and particularly how visual attention was distributed during a lane-change maneuver, a Markov chains approach was used to compare gaze transitions between the different information sources available in the surrounding road and cockpit environment, for each of the three drives. Results showed that drivers initiated fewer safety-related inspections (for example to the wing mirrors) during partial automation, throughout the whole lane change maneuver, possibly because they were focusing on how to the transition of control from automation. Drivers in this condition also had a higher probability of checking the system’s HMI, to verify the automation’s status. In contrast, during conditional automation, the lack of a need for vehicle control by the driver resulted in more gaze transitions between information sources, and fewer gazes to locations where a potential hazard could be present, when compared to manual. Finally, drivers generally only deviated their gaze towards information related to aspects of vehicle control they were responsible for, which we conclude could make them susceptible to missing hazards during both routine and safety-critical take-overs.

Comments

Honda Outstanding Student Paper Award Winner

Rights

Copyright © 2019 the author(s)

DC Citation

Proceedings of the Tenth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, 24-27 June 2019, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Iowa City, IA: Public Policy Center, of Iowa, 2019: 217-223.

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Jun 26th, 12:00 AM

Using Markov Chains to Understand the Sequence of Drivers' Gaze Transitions During Lane-Changes in Automated Driving

Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA

This paper reports the results of a driving simulator study, which analyzed differences in drivers’ raw gaze transition patterns during different stages of a lane-change maneuver, measured during manual, partially and conditionally automated driving. To understand whether the different levels of automation affected behaviour, and particularly how visual attention was distributed during a lane-change maneuver, a Markov chains approach was used to compare gaze transitions between the different information sources available in the surrounding road and cockpit environment, for each of the three drives. Results showed that drivers initiated fewer safety-related inspections (for example to the wing mirrors) during partial automation, throughout the whole lane change maneuver, possibly because they were focusing on how to the transition of control from automation. Drivers in this condition also had a higher probability of checking the system’s HMI, to verify the automation’s status. In contrast, during conditional automation, the lack of a need for vehicle control by the driver resulted in more gaze transitions between information sources, and fewer gazes to locations where a potential hazard could be present, when compared to manual. Finally, drivers generally only deviated their gaze towards information related to aspects of vehicle control they were responsible for, which we conclude could make them susceptible to missing hazards during both routine and safety-critical take-overs.