Document Type


Date of Degree

Spring 2011

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Psychological and Quantitative Foundations

First Advisor

Ansley, Timothy N

First Committee Member

Banks, Kathleen

Second Committee Member

Kolen, Michael

Third Committee Member

Welch, Catherine

Fourth Committee Member

Hlebowitsh, Peter


As part of test score validity, differential item functioning (DIF) is a quantitative characteristic used to evaluate potential item bias. In applications where a small number of examinees take a test, statistical power of DIF detection methods may be affected. Researchers have proposed modifications to DIF detection methods to account for small focal group examinee sizes for the case when items are dichotomously scored. These methods, however, have not been applied to polytomously scored items.

Simulated polytomous item response strings were used to study the Type I error rates and statistical power of three popular DIF detection methods (Mantel test/Cox's β, Liu-Agresti statistic, HW3) and three modifications proposed for contingency tables (empirical Bayesian, randomization, log-linear smoothing). The simulation considered two small sample size conditions, the case with 40 reference group and 40 focal group examinees and the case with 400 reference group and 40 focal group examinees.

In order to compare statistical power rates, it was necessary to calculate the Type I error rates for the DIF detection methods and their modifications. Under most simulation conditions, the unmodified, randomization-based, and log-linear smoothing-based Mantel and Liu-Agresti tests yielded Type I error rates around 5%. The HW3 statistic was found to yield higher Type I error rates than expected for the 40 reference group examinees case, rendering power calculations for these cases meaningless. Results from the simulation suggested that the unmodified Mantel and Liu-Agresti tests yielded the highest statistical power rates for the pervasive-constant and pervasive-convergent patterns of DIF, as compared to other DIF method alternatives. Power rates improved by several percentage points if log-linear smoothing methods were applied to the contingency tables prior to using the Mantel or Liu-Agresti tests. Power rates did not improve if Bayesian methods or randomization tests were applied to the contingency tables prior to using the Mantel or Liu-Agresti tests. ANOVA tests showed that statistical power was higher when 400 reference examinees were used versus 40 reference examinees, when impact was present among examinees versus when impact was not present, and when the studied item was excluded from the anchor test versus when the studied item was included in the anchor test. Statistical power rates were generally too low to merit practical use of these methods in isolation, at least under the conditions of this study.


Bayesian, Differential Item Functioning, Liu-Agresti Statistic, Log-Linear Smoothing, Polytomous Items, Sample Size


xiii, 208 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 114-132).


Copyright 2011 Scott William Wood