Document Type


Date of Degree

Summer 2011

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Speech and Hearing Science

First Advisor

Bass-Ringdahl, Sandie M.

Second Advisor

Bentler, Ruth A.

First Committee Member

Fleckenstein, Stephanie

Second Committee Member

Holte, Lenore

Third Committee Member

Hurtig, Richard

Fourth Committee Member

Ringdahl, Joel


The two objectives of this single-subject study were to assess how an FM system use impacts parent-child interaction in a noisy listening environment, and how a parent/caregiver training affect the interaction between parent/caregiver and child. Two 5-year-old children with hearing loss and their parent/caregiver participated. Experiement 1 was conducted using an alternating design measured three communication behaviors (e.g., child's vocalization, parent/caregiver's initiation, and parent/caregiver's response) across four listening conditions (e.g., HA+Quiet, HA+Noise, FM+Quiet, and FM+Noise). Experiment 2 was conducted using a comparison within and between conditions to re-measure the communicative behaviors across the listening conditions after the parent/caregiver training. Findings of this study point to three major conclusions. First, FM system use (i.e., FM-only mode) facilitated FM01 child's ability to maintain same level of interaction in a noisy as good as in a quiet environment. Second, parent/caregiver training enhanced the impact of FM system use for one child (FM01), although parent/caregiver initiation increased for both. Third, it is important to verify the function of both FM system and HA microphones to ensure access to FM advantage.


Caregiver training, Children with hearing impairment, Frequency Modulation (FM) system, Hearing aids, Interaction, Noisy listening environment


xii, 120 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 113-120).


Copyright 2011 Huong T. Nguyen