Document Type


Date of Degree

Summer 2016

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Teaching and Learning

First Advisor

Schrier, Leslie L

First Committee Member

Colvin, Carolyn

Second Committee Member

Otto, Sue K

Third Committee Member

Plakans, Lia M

Fourth Committee Member

Wesely, Pamela M


Using a mixed methods design this study investigates in-service K-12 foreign language teachers’ beliefs about technology and factors that influence its implementation in instruction. The study employs an Explanatory Design using a two-phase approach, where qualitative data is collected and analyzed to elaborate on the quantitative data results. A total of ninety-nine in-service K-12 foreign language teachers from across the state of Iowa responded to the Modified Technology Implementation Questionnaire about their technological beliefs and barriers to technology integration within classroom practices. The results of the instrument were tabulated using a hierarchical multiple regression to uncover factors impacting technology integration. To further enhance the quantitative findings, ten teachers were purposefully sampled from the same participant pool for follow-up interviews. Follow-up interviews with participants were conducted using thematic analysis. The findings from this study suggest that both internal and external variables impact teachers’ uses of technology. Some of the more contextual factors were time, resources, support, professional development, class sizes, and scheduling conflicts. In addition to contextual factors, teachers’ more internal factors about technology further impacted its incorporation. The study uncovered three main internal elements: beliefs, perceived benefits, and teaching style as factors making a difference in the utilization of technology. The internal factors were more influential than external factors in their ability to be successful with technology integration. The conclusion includes recommendations and implications for administrators, professional development coordinators, teachers, and teacher preparation institutions.


beliefs, education, foreign, language, practice, technology


xiii, 275 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 261-275).


Copyright 2016 Brittany Ann Garling