Document Type


Date of Degree

Fall 2011

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Psychological and Quantitative Foundations

First Advisor

Ehly, Stewart W

First Committee Member

Ansley, Timothy

Second Committee Member

Assouline, Susan

Third Committee Member

McNabb, Scott

Fourth Committee Member

Northup, John


The purpose of the current study was to determine if there are potential mediating factors to a student being victimized by school violence. Results from 5,409 middle school and high school student participants who completed the 2007 School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey, a nationally collected survey on victimization, were used to determine if there was a relationship between student victimization and extracurricular activity involvement. Specifically, the questions about victimization (bullying), extracurricular activity involvement, a relationship with an adult at school, and a relationship with a friend were used. Seven specific types of extracurricular activities (athletic teams, spirit groups, performing arts groups, academic clubs, student government, community service/volunteer clubs, and other) were examined to determine if a specific type of extracurricular activity might be related to lower victimization scores. Relationships with an adult and a peer were examined in association with a student's involvement in extracurricular activities. Reported victimization status was also explored in connection with the student's relationships with an adult and peer.

The results of this study indicate statistically significant relations among many of the variables above. However, the large sample size was the reason for the significant findings. The results indicate that protecting a student from victimization may not be a benefit of extracurricular involvement; however, extracurricular activities may be a useful tool to connect students to friends and caring adults at school.


bully, extracurricular activities, National Crime Victimization Survey, School Crime Supplement, school violence, victim


vi, 145 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 136-145).


Copyright 2011 Sharon Llewellyn Clark