Document Type

Dissertation

Date of Degree

Spring 2012

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Immunology

First Advisor

Paul B. Rothman

First Committee Member

Jon Houtman

Second Committee Member

John Harty

Third Committee Member

John Colgan

Fourth Committee Member

Steve Lentz

Fifth Committee Member

Paul B Rothman

Abstract

Tim-1 (T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 1) is a transmembrane protein expressed by many cell types, including activated T cells and B cells. Antibodies to Tim-1 have been shown to decrease severity of airway hyperreactivity and Th2 cytokine production in mice. Current literature suggests Tim-1 functions as a co-stimulatory molecule. We hypothesize that Tim-1 signals in lymphocytes, and that Tim-1 signaling modulates allergic airway disease. Chapter one provides a brief overview of current literature exploring identification of the Tim family of receptors, genetic associations between TIM-1 polymorphisms and human diseases, Tim-1 expression, Tim-1 ligands, studies of antibodies to Tim-1 in various mouse models of human disease, and signaling events downstream of Tim-1 engagement. Chapter two provides detailed experimental methodology. Chapter three details the characterization of Tim-1 deficient mice. Tim-1 deficient mice do not exhibit defects in lymphocyte or myeloid cell development, as determined by numbers of cells present in bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. C57BL/6 Tim-1 deficient female mice appear to develop an increased number of lymph node cells and also develop anti-double stranded DNA antibodies. Chapter four explores the impact of Tim-1 deficiency in a murine allergic airway disease model, which demonstrated that Tim-1 deficient mice developed increased lung inflammation and increased antigen-specific Th2 cytokine production that was evident in mice backcrossed to both BALB/c and C57BL/6 backgrounds. These phenotypes were not evident using purified naïve CD4+ T cells polarized in vitro. As Tim-1 expression is not restricted to CD4+ T cells, adoptive transfer experiments were performed to determine whether the phenotype observed was due to the deficiency of Tim-1 on CD4+ T cells, non-CD4+ T cells, or Tim-1 deficiency on both CD4+ T cells and non-CD4+ T cells. Chapter five explores the impact of Tim-1 deficiency in a chronic Leishmania major intradermal infection model. Tim-1 deficient mice crossed to both BALB/c and C57BL/6 backrounds demonstrated similar parasite burden over the course of time, but in vitro restimulation of lymph node cells revealed a striking increase in cytokine production that extended to Th1, Th2, and Th17 lineages. Tim-1 signaling in murine B cell lines is explored in Chapter six. A Tim-1 monoclonal antibody conjugated to beads induces phosphorylation of Tim-1 and recruitment of the Src family kinase Fyn. This phosphorylation of Tim-1 is reduced in Fyn-deficient B cell lines. Chapter seven discusses the significance of these findings, relates current literature to these results, and provides some avenues for further exploration of Tim-1 function and signaling.

Keywords

asthma, B cell, CD4+ T cell, signaling, Th2 cell, Tim-1

Pages

2, xiv, 154 pages

Bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 133-154).

Copyright

Copyright 2012 Miranda Lynn Curtiss

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