Document Type


Date of Degree

Spring 2012

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Psychological and Quantitative Foundations

First Advisor

Kristen Missall

Second Advisor

Stewart Ehly


Because of a greater need to focus on early achievement in mathematics and increased global competition in this area, emphasis is increasingly being placed upon screening and monitoring of math development in early elementary to ensure progress for all students. Although protocols for early literacy assessment exist, research of psychometrically sound and instructionally useful early numeracy assessment methods is still developing. Thus, the current study was undertaken to further develop and examine early numeracy measures. In a two-year investigation, 72 kindergarten and 57 first-grade students completed a set of existing and newly developed early numeracy curriculum-based measurement (EN-CBM) tools. Reliability and validity of these measures were examined both within and across years. The nature of score change across the academic year was also analyzed. Findings were generally similar to those published in previous EN-CBM research. Alternate-form reliability estimates were largely adequate for screening purposes. Although concurrent and predictive validity estimates varied as a function of screening period and the outcome criterion, these estimates were generally moderate to strong. EN-CBM discriminant validity evidence was mixed for the kindergarten measures but more evident for first-grade tools. All measures demonstrated score change that was statistically significant over time with at least moderate to large effect sizes for most measures. Implications for EN-CBM use as screening tools are discussed. Study limitations are presented as are suggestions for future EN-CBM research.


CBM, early numeracy, EN-CBM, math assessment, progress monitoring, screening


2, vi, 147 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 136-147).


Copyright 2012 Gregory Feldmann