Document Type


Date of Degree

Summer 2012

Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)

Degree In


First Advisor

Smith, Tara C

Second Advisor

Meier, Jeffery L

First Committee Member

Torner, James C

Second Committee Member

Schweizer, Marin L

Third Committee Member

Pentella, Michael A


Background: Antiretroviral drug resistance is steadily growing in populations of HIV treatment-naive individuals due to person-to-person transmission. However, Iowa-specific data for transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance-associated mutations prevalence has not been previously reported. We postulate that the prevalence of drug resistance in Iowa does not differ significantly between HIV risk groups.

Methods: Data were collected from electronic medical records and an HIV Program database between 2006 and 2011. Information included age, gender, risk exposure group, viral load, CD4 count, CD4%, and other HIV risk factors and behaviors.

Results: Transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) were not associated with many risk factors, but rapid plasma reagin (RPR) screening for syphilis was significant (p=0.02) and used as a proxy for highest level of sexual risk behavior. RPR was used with minor NRTI and NNRTI along with intravenous drug use in logistic regression to model the likelihood of acquiring TDRM.

Conclusion: Some question the practicality of implementing genotypic ARV resistance testing guidelines because of uncertainty about the prevalence of ARV drug resistance among treatment-naïve patients but harboring resistance mutations puts patients at high risk of failing effective, first-line therapies. Hence, genotypic resistance testing at HIV diagnoses can not only improve disease management but also assist in surveillance.


Antiretroviral, HIV, Low Prevalence, Resistance, Transmitted


vii, 37 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 36-37).


Copyright 2012 Thuy Thi Vu Nguyen