Document Type


Date of Degree

Summer 2011

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In


First Advisor

McCarthy, Ann Marie

First Committee Member

Baller, Robert

Second Committee Member

Denehy, Janice

Third Committee Member

Craft-Rosenberg, Martha

Fourth Committee Member

Bergren, Martha Dewey


The independent, complex role of a school nurse requires accurate documentation of assessments, interventions, and outcomes. Consistent documentation by all school nurses is crucial to study the impact of nursing interventions on children's health and success in school. While standardized nursing languages are available, the actual use of these languages is in the infancy stages of implementation. This national survey of school nurses reveals diverse practices in school nursing documentation. Using Everett Rogers' (2003) Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory, a web-based survey allowed respondents to identify their knowledge and attitude towards the use of standardized languages, including NANDA International (NANDA-I), Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). Respondents also rated barriers to adopting the use of NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC (NNN). The results of this survey serve as a foundation for moving the practice of school nursing towards consistent documentation. Ultimately, the implementation of NNN will allow school nurses to document more consistently, base practice decisions on evidence, and improve the health and academic success of children in schools.


diffusion of innovation (DOI), documentation, NANDA, NIC, NOC, school health, school nurse, standardized nursing language


viii, 151 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 143-151).


Copyright 2011 Sharon Yearous

Included in

Nursing Commons