Document Type


Date of Degree

Fall 2012

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In


First Advisor

Watson, David B

First Committee Member

Clark, Lee Anna

Second Committee Member

O'Hara, Michael

Third Committee Member

Markon, Kristian

Fourth Committee Member

Dyken, Eric


A large body of research has demonstrated general relations of sleep complaints with psychological disorders, including anxiety, depression, and dissociation/schizotypy. In contrast, very few studies have focused on the specificity of sleep complaints to daytime symptoms. Identifying sleep disturbances that show evidence of specificity is important for differential diagnosis and assessment. This study used the structure of self-reported sleep complaints as a framework for examining specificity. Comprehensive questionnaire and interview measures of sleep disturbance were submitted to factor analyses in students and psychiatric patients. These analyses revealed the presence of three well defined higher order factors: Lassitude, Insomnia, and Unusual Sleep Experiences. These factors were then correlated with interview and questionnaire measures of daytime symptoms. Lassitude was specific to dysphoria, whereas Insomnia had weaker, nonspecific relations with daytime symptoms. Fatigue, a component of Lassitude, showed the strongest evidence of specificity. Unusual Sleep Experiences was specific to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation. In particular, the Nightmares component of Unusual Sleep Experiences was strongly related to PTSD and the Sleep Hallucinations component of Unusual Sleep Experiences was strongly related to dissociation.


Anxiety, Assessment, Depression, Dissociation, Schizotypy, Sleep


ix, 202 pages


Copyright 2012 Erin Anne Koffel

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Psychology Commons