Document Type


Date of Degree

Summer 2013

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Psychological and Quantitative Foundations

First Advisor

Liu, William M

First Committee Member

Ali, Saba R

Second Committee Member

Foley-Nicpon, Megan

Third Committee Member

Ansley, Timothy N

Fourth Committee Member

Bills, David B


This paper discusses the development of the Perceived Classism Scales. Three separate studies were conducted to create and validate scales designed to measure Liu, Soleck, Hopps, Dunston, and Pickett's (2004) upward, downward, and lateral classism constructs in their Modern Classism Theory. An initial pool of 51-items was created to assess each of the three classism domains. Three hundred and three individuals participated in the first study, which consisted of an exploratory factor analysis of the 51 items. Results from the first study provided preliminary support for the measurement of two factors. The 51 items were pared down to two, 8-item scales reflecting upward and downward classism. The second study consisted of a confirmatory factor analysis to ensure each scale represented a good model fit to the data from 237 participants. Findings from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested some overlap between items and the downward classism scale was further reduced to 5-items and the upward classism scale was reduced to 6-items. The revised scales represented a good fit to the data and the scales were named Upward and Downward Classism. The third study served to establish construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Upward and Downward scales. One hundred sixty-nine people participated in the third and final study. Results provided initial support for the validity of the scales and the scales also showed good stability over a two-week period. In addition, implications of the current study for both researchers and clinicians are presented. Lastly, recommendations for improving the validity of the PCS scales and suggestions for future research are discussed.


classism, measurement, social class


viii, 152 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 145-152).


Copyright 2013 Jovan Hernandez