Document Type


Date of Degree

Summer 2017

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Rehabilitation and Counselor Education

First Advisor

Priest, Jacob Bird

First Committee Member

Peek-Asa, Corinne

Second Committee Member

Wojciak, Armeda

Third Committee Member

Bardhoshi, Gerta

Fourth Committee Member

Estrada-Hernandez, Noel


Child maltreatment is a pervasive social and public health problem in the United States. The negative effects of child maltreatment can include poor mental and relational health outcomes. The experience of discrimination has been shown to have many of the same mental and relational health difficulties. Child maltreatment and discrimination are both social health problems that disproportionately affect the most marginalized people in our society (people of color, people with disabilities, LGBT individuals). Complex trauma, or the experience of multiple traumas, has been shown to have worse mental and relational health outcomes then experiencing one type of trauma alone. Feminist theory is a useful framework for studying how those with marginalized identities experience the effects of child maltreatment. Feminist theory argues that it is essential to incorporate an analysis of power to truly capture the experience of complex trauma for people with marginalized identities. The effects of child maltreatment and discrimination have been studied individually, however little is known about the effects of experiencing both. Data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) biomarker project was used to examine the effect of experiencing both child maltreatment and discrimination. Latent profile analysis was used to create distinct profiles of trauma out of child maltreatment variables and discrimination. A four profile solution was determined to be the best fitting model. The profiles were Low Trauma, Child Maltreatment/Discrimination, Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment/ Discrimination High. Analysis of co-variance was then used to determine how each profile of trauma was related to anxiety, depression, family support and family strain. Differences were found among the profiles and the mental health and relational outcomes. Results and clinical implications are discussed.


Child Maltreatment, Discrimination, Feminist Theory, Latent Profile Analysis


ix, 94 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 73-94).


Copyright © 2017 Elizabeth Oshrin Parker