Document Type


Date of Degree

Fall 2017

Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)

Degree In

Civil and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Cwiertny, David M.

Second Advisor

LeFevre, Gregory H.

First Committee Member

Kolpin, Dana W.


Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin, hydrolysis products of thiamethoxam and known metabolites of imidacloprid are susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo transformation during chemical disinfection via chlorination or during distribution with chlorine residual. We identify several transformation products resulting from these oxidation and hydrolysis reactions, and discuss implications for human health. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as a potentially effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.


Chlorination, Drinking water, Granular activated carbon, Neonicotinoids, Transformation products


xiv, 96 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 89-96).


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Copyright © 2017 Kathryn L. Klarich