Document Type


Date of Degree

Fall 2015

Degree Name

MS (Master of Science)

Degree In

Oral Science

First Advisor

Elangovan, Satheesh

First Committee Member

Brogden, Kim A

Second Committee Member

Banas, Jeffrey A

Third Committee Member

Qian, Fang


The prevalence of obesity is continually rising in developed countries like the United States. Based on the association between periodontitis and obesity and the relationship between periodontitis and peri-implantitis, it is important to understand the implications of obesity on peri-implant health. A potential relationship between obesity and peri-implant health has practical, biological and financial implications.

The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between obesity as measured by the body fat indices (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percent (fat %)) and the levels of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva. In addition, this study explored the correlations between the levels of these biomarkers in saliva versus their corresponding levels in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples collected from the same subjects.

Periodontal maintenance patients (N=73) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements (BMI, WC, and body fat %), intraoral assessment (full mouth plaque index, periodontal, and peri-implant comprehensive examinations) and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from the subjects. GCF and PISF were also collected. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12(p40), IL-17α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, osteoprotegerin (OPG), letpin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in saliva, GCF and PISF were analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Statistical analyses were performed to explore the correlations of interest.

Data from 63 subjects were included in the analysis. No statistically significant correlations were noted between any of the body fat indices and any of the biomarkers measured in saliva (p>0.05 in all instances). A significant positive correlation was noted between salivary and GCF levels of IL-1α (r=0.29, p=0.0232), IL-8 (r=0.29, p=0.0207) and between saliva and PISF levels of leptin (r=0.32, p=0.0284). The employed linear model also revealed the significant impact of tooth brushing frequency on the salivary levels of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α (p<0.05). Based on this cross-sectional study of 63 patients, I conclude that there was no statistically significant correlation noted between salivary inflammatory biomarkers and any of the obesity measures. However, the levels of key inflammatory markers in saliva strongly correlated with their corresponding levels in GCF/PISF. In addition, frequency of tooth brushing was also related to levels of certain biomarkers in GCF/PISF.


inflammation, obesity, peri-implantitis, periodontitis, salivary biomarkers


ix, 53 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 48-53).


Copyright © 2015 Katherine Mary Smith