Document Type


Date of Degree

Spring 2019

Access Restrictions

Access restricted until 07/29/2020

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Teaching and Learning

First Advisor

Reed, Deborah K

First Committee Member

Aloe, Ariel M

Second Committee Member

Datchuk, Shawn M

Third Committee Member

Ehly, Stewart W

Fourth Committee Member

Ries, Pam


Approximately 80% of students with learning disabilities (LD) experience difficulties learning to read (Shaywitz, Morris, & Shaywitz, 2008). Many schools have begun offering intensive summer reading programs in an effort to enhance the reading of students with and at risk for LD. Yet, remarkably little is known about the teachers who staff these programs and are tasked with teaching students with some of the most significant reading needs. For this reason, this study investigated the relationship between characteristics of summer reading teachers, their knowledge of reading, and the code-focused reading instruction they provided in the classroom during an intensive summer reading program for students with and at risk for LD. Data for this study were collected by the Iowa Reading Research Center as part of its Intensive Summer Reading Program (ISRP) study. In total, 74 teachers participated in this study. In addition to completing the Teacher Knowledge of Early Literacy Skills test, each teacher’s classroom was observed one day each week during the ISRP study. Findings of multiple regression analysis indicate that summer reading teachers certified in special education spent 4.1% less of their overall instructional time on code-focused instruction in comparison to general education teachers. Additionally, summer reading teachers who scored higher on the TKELS spent less time on code-focused instruction. Finally, years of teaching experience and years of experience teaching students achieving below grade level were not useful in predicting variation in the amount of code-focused instruction teachers provided during the intensive summer reading program.


Reading, Summer reading program, Teacher knowledge of reading


xi, 130 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 113-130).


Copyright © 2019 Michelle Lynn Hinzman