Document Type


Date of Degree

Spring 2019

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Teaching and Learning

First Advisor

Datchuk, Shawn M

First Committee Member

Aloe, Ariel M

Second Committee Member

Bruhn, Allison L

Third Committee Member

Reed, Deborah K

Fourth Committee Member

Welch, Catherine J


Written expression can be a critical skill for academic, vocational, and social pursuits. Unfortunately, research suggests that students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) struggle to develop writing skills. Paragraph text-writing is a component of written expression and refers to constructing multiple sentences about a singular topic with appropriate capitalization, punctuation, and grammar. The present study investigated the effects of a multicomponent intervention of explicit instruction and timed practice on the paragraph text-writing skills of four secondary student with IDD. The study included four dependent measures (paragraph text-writing rubric, total words written, and correct and incorrect writing sequences) and used a multiple-probe across participants design. Visual analysis and effect sizes revealed modest results. Three participants showed improvement on at least one of the dependent measures; one participant showed no improvement at all. The practical implications of this study are discussed within the context of existing writing literature, and the limitations are presented.


autism spectrum disorder, explicit instruction, intellectual disability, text writing, writing fluency


xi, 208 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 75-90).


Copyright © 2019 Derek B. Rodgers