Document Type


Date of Degree

Spring 2019

Access Restrictions

Access restricted until 07/29/2020

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Rehabilitation and Counselor Education

First Advisor

Wood, Susannah

Second Advisor

Duys, David

First Committee Member

Bardhoshi, Gerta

Second Committee Member

Smith, Carol K

Third Committee Member

Priest, Jacob B


Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students are at-risk for high rates of bullying and harassment in the school setting. School counselors are uniquely positioned to provide support to LGBTQ youth and work alongside building principals to create safe and welcoming school environments. To build on existing literature, this researcher set out to examine how demographic factors and the school counselor-principal relationship influenced school counselor advocacy for LGBTQ youth. By examining these factors, school counselors are better informed about the roadblocks or barriers that might influence their advocacy efforts. In addition, this information helps counselor educators to better prepare school counselors as advocates and change agents.

An anonymous survey with questions about demographics, attitudes, knowledge, and advocacy activity was completed by 169 practicing school counselors in the United States. Results revealed that sexual orientation of the counselor, the state in which the counselor works, the community setting, state and local policies influence a school counselor’s advocacy activity. Additionally, the number of years school counselors and building principals work together and the perceived collaborative working relationship are predictors of school counselor advocacy activity. Using a systems perspective can help school counselors identify how to advocate for LGBTQ students at the individual level, at the school, district, and community level, to the public arena.


advocacy, LGBTQ youth, school counselors


xi, 136 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 109-122).


Copyright © 2019 Haley Dianne Wikoff