Document Type


Date of Degree

Summer 2019

Access Restrictions

Access restricted until 09/04/2021

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Second Language Acquisition

First Advisor

Severino, Carol

Second Advisor

Plakans, Lia

First Committee Member

Liskin-Gasparro, Judith

Second Committee Member

Wesely, Pamela

Third Committee Member

Destruel-Johnson, Emilie


Writing instruction and assessment in foreign language courses have traditionally relied on independent writing tasks, which require learners to compose essays in response to short prompts. Concerns with the limitations of independent writing tasks (e.g., inauthenticity) have resulted in increased interest in integrated/source-based writing tasks. Integrated writing tasks require learners to use sources in their writing and thus resemble academic writing more closely than do independent writing tasks. A review of the research literature has revealed a significant lack of studies investigating both composing processes and written products in response to integrated writing tasks, French as a second language writing, source-based writing on a computer, and the use of modalities other than print sources (e.g., visual and audio sources).

This study addresses the identified research gaps by investigating French learners’ composing processes, written products, and perceptions in response to an integrated writing task in which the participants read a passage, visually examine a graph, listen to an audio recording, and then write a persuasive essay based on the three sources. Participants were 38 university students enrolled in third-year French language courses. Data included think-aloud protocols, screen recordings, notes, essays, questionnaire responses, and interviews. Data analysis focused on (a) composing processes and time allocated to them; (b) total amount, location, attribution, and degree of transformation of language integrated from the sources into the essays; and (c) perceptions of the integrated writing task and source use.

Results indicate that the French learners actively interacted with the sources and integrated them into their writing in a variety of ways. Despite a relatively high percentage of the total amount of textual borrowing in the essays, the participants’ tendency to acknowledge and transform language from the sources pointed to their developing abilities and skills in appropriate source use. Most students liked writing an essay in response to the integrated writing task and viewed the three sources as valuable resources for language, content, and organization.

Finally, pedagogical implications for student writing in upper-level foreign language courses are discussed. By incorporating integrated writing tasks along with traditional independent writing tasks, instructors can diversify their practices in writing instruction and assessment, increase the authenticity of writing tasks, and prepare students for their future foreign language courses, academic studies, and professional pursuits.


assessment, French, integrated, source-based, writing


xv, 240 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 178-185).


Copyright © 2019 Anna A. Evans

Available for download on Saturday, September 04, 2021