Document Type


Date of Degree

Summer 2019

Degree Name

PhD (Doctor of Philosophy)

Degree In

Psychological and Quantitative Foundations

First Advisor

Vispoel, Walter

First Committee Member

Catherine Welch

Second Committee Member

Schuh, Kathy

Third Committee Member

DeVane, Benjamin

Fourth Committee Member

Bardhoshi, Gerta


The Big-Five is the most popular personality taxonomy used to characterize fundamental personality traits and their individual differences. This model has been well replicated across English speaking samples, several other languages, and different item formats, thereby begging the question of its universality. However, two key issues have challenged the validity of the cultural group comparisons using Big Five measures of personality. The first is methodology for translation and adaptation, and the second is construct equivalence across cultures. The International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1992) has been used to create several non-commercial versions of Big Five measures (IPIP-BFMs), with a common set of 50 items typically translated into other languages and used for cross-cultural comparisons. Although this 50-item version is available in more than 25 languages, little is known about how translation and adaptation was executed, and only a few researchers have reported psychometric characteristics of scores from the translated measures. The consistent lack of such evidence to support the use of the standard American set of the 50-items in other languages gave rise to the idea of developing a customized 50-item IPIP that would better fit the Thai culture.

The goal of this study was to develop and thoroughly validate scores from a Thai version of the 50-item IPIP Big Five measure of personality using a sample of 1,878 students from high schools in Thailand. One hundred items from the IPIP website were translated into the Thai language following guidelines developed by the International Test Commission (ITC, 2017). When psychometric properties for the original 50-item IPIP-BFM were investigated in Thai and American samples, weaknesses in model fit were detected. Using the more complete set of 100 items from the IPIP website, 50 items more suitable to the Thai culture were then selected to create a customized Thai 50-item IPIP. Scores from the customized 50-item IPIP-BFM were further examined for psychometric properties across Thai and American samples. The customized Thai 50-item IPIP-BFM produced good internal subscale reliability coefficients (> 0.80), a clear five-factor structure across Thai and American samples, measurement invariance across subgroups within the overall Thai sample, similar patterns of convergent and discriminant validity with another Big Five measure, and statistically significant incremental validity over standardized achievement and aptitude test scores in predicting end of high school grade-point average. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the customized 50-item IPIP-BFM produces psychometrically sound scores for measuring the Big Five with Thai adolescents. Procedures used in the study also provide a template for developing and validating new personality instruments for use with native speakers of other languages.


Big Five, Development, IPIP, Thai, Validation


x, 173 pages


Includes bibliographical references (pages 153-168).


Copyright © 2019 Chakadee Waiyavutti