Developing strategic interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk among law enforcement officers: the art and science of data triangulation

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Aaohn J

Journal/Book/Conference Title

AAOHN journal

PubMed ID



The purpose of this study was to use data triangulation to inform interventions targeted at reducing morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors among law enforcement officers. Using the Precede-Proceed Health Promotion Planning Model, survey data (n = 672) and focus group data (n = 8 groups) from the Milwaukee Police Department were analyzed. Narrative transcripts disclosed that law enforcement officers encounter potential barriers and motivators to a healthy lifestyle. Survey results indicated rates of overweight (71.1% vs. 60.8%) and hypertension (27.4% vs. 17.6%) were significantly (p < or = .001) higher among Milwaukee Police Department law enforcement officers than the general population of Wisconsin (n = 2,855). The best predictor of CVD was diabetes (p = .030). Occupational health nurses are uniquely positioned to identify health risks, design appropriate interventions, and advocate for policy changes that improve the health of those employed in law enforcement and other high-risk professions.


Adult, Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control, Female, Focus Groups, Health Promotion, Humans, Life Style, Male, Middle Aged, Minnesota, Occupational Health, Police, Risk Factors, Stress, Psychological/physiopathology/prevention & control

Published Article/Book Citation

AAOHN journal, 56:2 (2008) pp.54-62.

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