Outcome indicators for direct and indirect caregiving

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Clin Nurs Res

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Clinical nursing research

PubMed ID



Informal caregiving and outcomes for caregiving are an important part of health care and of particular importance in nursing. The purpose of this research is to report the results of a survey mailed to nursing experts for validation of the outcome labels Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: Indirect Care and their accompanying indicators. Experts were asked to rate how important the identified indicators were for assessing those two outcomes. In addition, the respondents were asked to what extent nursing interventions influence the achievement of each identified indicator for Caregiver Role Performance: Direct Care and Caregiver Role Performance: Indirect Care. In general, the validity of the concept analysis work by the caregiver focus group was supported. Ten indicators for Caregiver Performance: Direct Care were retained, 1 was dropped that was considered most appropriate for indirect care, and 3 new indicators were added to reflect the nurse experts surveyed. For Caregiver Performance: Indirect Care, all of the indicators were retained.


Caregivers/standards, Data Collection, Family Nursing/standards, Humans, Outcome Assessment (Health Care), Professional-Family Relations, Social Support

Published Article/Book Citation

Clinical nursing research, 9:1 (2000) pp.47-69.

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