Applying the Transtheoretical Model to physical activity in family caregivers in Taiwan

Document Type


Peer Reviewed


Publication Date


NLM Title Abbreviation

Public Health Nurs

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.)

PubMed ID


DOI of Published Version


Start Page


End Page



OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether specific constructs from the Transtheoretical Model (TTM)(i.e., stages of change, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers) relative to regular physical activity are applicable to Taiwanese family caregivers. DESIGN: A descriptive and cross-sectional design was used. SAMPLE: A convenience sample included 108 primary family caregivers of mentally ill patients receiving home care from a psychiatric hospital in southern Taiwan. MEASUREMENTS: After obtaining institutional review board approval and subject's consent, subjects' demographics, stages of change for regular physical activity, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to regular physical activity were assessed through the questionnaire. RESULTS: Subjects in the later stages of the TTM (action or maintenance) had significantly higher levels of self-efficacy than those in earlier stages (precontemplation or contemplation)(p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the level of perceived benefits and barriers across different TTM stages. This study provides partial support for the hypothesized relationships between constructs derived from the TTM. CONCLUSIONS: Since this is the first TTM study in Taiwan, continued TTM testing is needed to adequately determine the applicability of the TTM and to identify the most effective theory-based physical activity interventions.


Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Caregivers/education/psychology, Cross-Sectional Studies, Educational Status, Exercise/psychology, Family/ethnology/psychology, Female, Health Behavior/ethnology, Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Home Nursing/education/psychology, Humans, Life Style, Linear Models, Male, Mental Disorders/epidemiology/nursing, Middle Aged, Models, Psychological, Questionnaires, Self Care/methods/psychology, Self Efficacy, Taiwan/epidemiology

Published Article/Book Citation

Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.), 22:4 (2005) pp.299-310. DOI:10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220405.x.

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